This surgery is performed for degenerative disc disease leading to low back pain not responding to conservative treatment. This is also indicated for spondylolisthesis, spinal instability due to trauma, infections and tumours. The success of spinal fusion depends on preparing recipient bed, using copious cancellous bone grafts and providing spinal stability. Stability is provided by using spinal implants. The commonest used spinal implants are pedicular screws, which obtain a purchase in the pedicles. Various types of interbody cages can be used to provide stability to anterior column of the spine. In minimally invasive fusion surgery specialized instruments and implants are used which aid in inserting screws and cages by making small incisions. This surgery can be performed from anterior or posterior side depending on the pathology. Complications of this surgery should be discussed with the surgeon prior to operation.